Adverse Childhood Experiences

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are negative life events that occur in childhood and can have a profound impact on the development of an individual’s mental health. ACEs include abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional), neglect (physical, emotional, or medical), household dysfunction (domestic violence, substance abuse, incarceration of a parent), and others.

Studies have shown that individuals who experience ACEs are more likely to develop various mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse. Moreover, the impact of ACEs on mental health can persist throughout the individual’s lifetime, even into adulthood.

One study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that children who experienced four or more ACEs had a three-fold increased risk of depression and anxiety compared to those who experienced no ACEs. The study also found that children with four or more ACEs had a four-fold increased risk of attempting suicide compared to those with no ACEs.

Moreover, research has shown that individuals who experience ACEs are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as substance abuse and unprotected sex, which can lead to further mental health problems. For instance, a study conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration found that individuals who experienced four or more ACEs were three times more likely to experience substance abuse compared to those with no ACEs.

Additionally, ACEs can have a significant impact on the individual’s brain development and functioning. Research has shown that exposure to ACEs can lead to changes in brain structure and function, particularly in the areas responsible for emotion regulation, impulse control, and memory. These changes can result in an increased risk of mental health disorders and can also make it more challenging for individuals to regulate their emotions, control their impulses, and recall memories.

In conclusion, ACEs are a significant public health issue that can have a lasting impact on an individual’s mental health. Therefore, it is crucial that individuals who have experienced ACEs receive the support and resources they need to heal and recover from the adverse effects of their childhood experiences.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Retrieved from

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017). Adverse Childhood Experiences. Retrieved from

Teicher, M. H., Samson, J. A., Polcari, A., & McGreenery, C. E. (2010). Sticks, stones, and hurtful words: Relative effects of various forms of childhood maltreatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(2), 186-193.

Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., … & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174-186.